Volume 1 Issue 1
Letter to Editor
“Personalized Addiction Medicine” May Take Us to the Promised-Land: Coupling Neurogenetic Risk and Nutrigenomic Dopaminergic Activation
Kenneth Blum, PhD*,Rajendra D. Badgaiyan, MD, Marcelo Fabo, Mark S. Gold, MD
We are entering the era of genomic medicine and neuroimaging as it relates to addiction a subset of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). Previously we discussed the importance of providing a common rubric to identify all addictive behaviors drug and non-drug related and potential genetic antecedents. There is a global threat of many addictive like behaviors in all known societies especially as reflected in the legal iatrogenic opioid prescription dilemma. The statistics on heroin fatalities alone has become staggering in the United Sates.
Victory Over Stress: The Power of Brain Plasticity
The amygdala which is located in the medial temporal lobe of human brain functions as the integrative centre of the alarm circuits of our body. It receives information on the environmental insults from the hippocampus via a faster route and from the prefrontal cortex via a slower route. Since hippocampus is involved in processing sets of stimuli, i.e., the contexts of a situation, the faster pathway provokes particular memories and makes us susceptible to have strong emotions. On the other hand, the slower route via the prefrontal cortex allows us to be rational, since the prefrontal cortex sub-serves our highest order cognitive abilities.
The Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Tumor function of Calcineurin B Subunit
Zhenyi Su* and Judy Park DeWitt#
Calcineurin B subunit (CnB), the regulatory subunit of calcineurin (Cn), has been reported to have an anti-tumor function. In recent years, researchers are gradually unveiling the possible mechanisms of the tumoricidal function of CnB. These proposed mechanisms can be divided into two categories: immunity-mediated killing and direct pro-apoptotic killing. In this short communication, we discuss these distinct but related underlying mechanisms of the CnB-mediated anti-tumor function.
Probing of Amyloid Aβ (14-23) Trimers by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy
Sibaprasad Maity, Yuri L. Lyubchenko*
Self-assembly and aggregation of amyloid peptides, such as Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42), lead to the development of Alzheimer disease and similar neurodegenerative disorders associated with protein aggregation. The structures of large aggregates, specifically fibrils, are well characterized. However, our understanding about the structure of oligomeric forms of amyloids is incomplete and needs to be expanded, particularly given the finding that oligomeric rather than fibrillar amyloid morphologies are neurotoxic. This lack of knowledge is primarily due to the existence of transient oligomeric forms that require the use of non-traditional approaches capable of probing transiently existing amyloid forms.
Competing Endogenous RNA: A New RNA Language of Tumors
Yu-jie Hou, Yuan Bi, Rui-ying Wu, Yan Zhao, Lei Li and Shu-hua Zou*
Canonical genetics indicate that messenger RNA (mRNA) functions as a protein-coding template. And microRNAs (miRNAs) as a class of small non-coding RNAs have significant regulatory roles in translational repression by combining with complenmentary sequences within mRNA. However, a revolutionary study has demonstrated that mRNA transcripts can crosstalk to one another by competing for common microRNAs, and this cross talk is independent from protein-coding. This novel biological role of mRNA is defined as ‘‘competing endogenous RNA’’ (ceRNA) activity.
Application of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Cancer Treatment
Yuqing Wei and Wu Xu*
Cancer remains a leading cause of death in the world. Traditional medicinal herbs have been confirmed to have the character of anticancer. Besides cancer cell-killing activity, herbal medicine can be also used to strengthen the immune system and to ease the side effects of conventional cancer therapies. Based on the literature, there are three stages of herbal medicine studies in cancer treatment. The first stage herbs are those, which have been demonstrated to have anticancer activity from in vitro cell line study or animal model study.
Functional Ultrasound Imaging of Cerebral Capillaries in Rodents and Humans
Alan URBAN#,*, Clément BRUNNER#, Clara DUSSAUX, Francine CHASSOUX, Bertrand DEVAUX and Gabriel MONTALDO
Monitoring capillary blood flow is of great clinical value since microcirculation is crucial for proper delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the biological tissue, particularly in the brain. Functional ultrasound imaging is a novel method to measure hemodynamics in small vessels at a high resolution providing new insight into brain activity. Nevertheless, a drawback of this modality is the need for clutter filtering to suppress signals originating from slowly moving tissue that may hinder not only the detection of low blood flow velocity in micro vessels but also significantly underestimate the power spectrum of the Doppler signal.
TLR Signaling Pathway Regulation in Association with Autophagy in the Diseased Inner Ear
Jing Zou*, Hao Feng, Ilmari Pyykko
Inner ear diseases, such as Meniere’s disease and sensorineural hearing loss, significantly impact the work capacity and life quality of affected patients because of the lack of efficient treatments. The causes and mechanisms underlying Meniere’s disease and idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss remain unknown. Inflammation secondary to infection or insufficiency of blood supply are accepted as critical steps toward inner ear impairment. Advancements in the understanding of inflammatory signaling pathways have provided an avenue to discover the molecular mechanisms underlying inner ear disease.